Their xylem shows extreme variability both in respect of the tissue structure and the technical characteristics. There are different classifications even in anatomical considerations; the standard distinguishes soft broadleaved (willow, alder, poplar) and hard broadleaved trees (oak, beech and acacia) for the raw materials of the load-bearing timber structures.
Oak (Quercus robur)
Oaks are the most important trees of the furniture industry; the significant fields of use are interior design, production of doorsteps, stairs and parquets. Poles and stailes are made of the narrower trees. Mechanical processing of the wooden material with even, narrow annual rings is easier than that of with hard and rigid xylem, wide and uneven annual rings. Due to the colour variations the raw material has to be selected (colour, figure) when making quality finished goods. It is valuable firewood.
Beech is one of the most wanted timbers in Europe. It is the key species of plywood and veneer production. The furniture industry uses it both in the form of veneer and solid wood. It is the important raw material of parquets, as well as of building and structural projects. Similarly to the oak it is also valuable firewood.
Its mechanical processing is tool- and energy-demanding. It is an important species for carriage and shipbuilding, as well as different earth works. Its use in furniture- and carpentry industry is increasing. The expanding field of use includes production of garden furniture and facilities.
It’s mechanical processing, gluing and surface treatment is seamless. Certain parts of moulds, musical instruments and radio frames are made of its wood. It is also used in wood sculpture, because the material can be easily formed. It is not suitable for outdoor purposes.